STANDARD TREATMENT OF PATIENTS HIV / AIDS, WHEN HAVE SURGERY
HIV infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys white blood cells and causes AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). (10) AIDS was first discovered in 1981. (1)
Transmission of HIV infection from mother to child is the main cause of HIV infection in children under 15 years of age. Since HIV became pandemic in the world, an estimated 5.1 million children globally are infected with HIV. Most of these patients infected through transmission from mother to child. Each year an estimated more than 800,000 infants become infected with HIV through transmission from mother to child. And followed by the approximately 610 000 child deaths from the virus. (10)
In Indonesia, according to the Directorate General of Health Department of PPM and PL recorded 3568 cases of HIV / AIDS at the end of December 2002. There are 20 children with HIV infection who are infected mother. Research conducted Pelita Science Foundation and The Faculty of medicine obstetrics / RSCM during the years 1999-2001 do a check on 558 pregnant women in poor areas in Jakarta, showed as many as 16 people (2.86%) suffering from HIV infection. (10)
Women are contracting HIV infection through heterosexual relations with an infected partner or through the use of drugs, increasing HIV infection in children is due to the result of transmission during the perinatal period (pregnancy, during and after childbirth). Perinatal HIV transmission is a major cause of pediatric AIDS mother - mothers that transmit HIV are usually good and has a number of CD 4 T lymphocytes are normal and do not know if they are infected with HIV. More than 90% of AIDS in children were reported in 1994 occurred because of transmission from mother to child. (10)
Transmission to the infant can occur during pregnancy, delivery or postnatal through breast milk. The incidence of mother to child transmission is estimated at 20% - 30%. HIV transmission to the fetus if no intervention reported to range between 155-45%. (10)
The risk of transmission in developing countries around 21% - 43%, higher than the risk of transmission in developed countries about 14% -26%. Transmission can occurs during pregnancy, intrapartum, and postpartum. The risk of transmission of most infections occur during labor by 18%, in the content of 6% and 4% after delivery.